Endothelin Receptor Antagonists (ERA) in Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: a Rose with Many Thorns
Doumas M1, 2, *, Athyros V1, Katsiki N1, Reklou A1, Lazaridis A1, Karagiannis A1
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2013
First Page: 12
Last Page: 17
Publisher Id: TOHYPERJ-5-12
Article History:Received Date: 10/06/2013
Revision Received Date: 31/07/2013
Acceptance Date: 31/07/2013
Electronic publication date: 15/8/2013
Collection year: 2013
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The discovery of endothelin created a lot of enthusiasm and paved new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Endothelin plays a significant role in blood pressure regulation through pronounced vasoconstriction and modulation of sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys. Endothelin receptor antagonists have been tested in many clinical trials in patients with arterial hypertension, heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension, systemic sclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic nephropathy. However, the results were usually disappointing, except in pulmonary hypertension and scleroderma digital ulcers. The future of ERAs for the treatment of arterial hypertension and chronic kidney disease does not seem bright, and only the combination with other classes of antihypertensive drugs might offer a way out.